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Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl repack, this was Tax Day. It’s the deadline for American taxpayers to submit their income tax returns to the federal government. Yet on Tax Day 2018, the IRS electronic filing system was down. Millions were attempting to e-File on that day alone and nearly every one of them was denied. Turns out the IRS’s computers were still partially relying on old assembly code meant for mid-20th century IBM mainframes, and a buggy update had caused their modern systems to come crashing down. What happened? This is Final Fantasy VIII Remaster ocean of games, where we take a look at noteworthy stories of technological inspiration, failure, and everything in-between. This episode tells the tale of the 2018 Tax Day outage and the cold war-era technology that contributed to it.
In 1959, the Internal Revenue Service had some big problems. 260 million of them, actually. That was the number of tax documents they had to check from 1958, with over 60 million individuals and 975,000 corporations all submitting their tax returns that year. Even though the IRS employed 50,000 people, checking 60 million documents by hand was unfeasible, much less the millions of tax audits on top of that. And that’s where International Business Machines came in, with the latest and greatest of their so-called “brain machines,” “Final Fantasy VIII Remaster repack Download” or simply “computers.” And in 1959, the new hotness was these gigantic, room-filling mainframes from the IBM 700 and 7000 series. Specifically, the IRS made use of the IBM 7074 starting in the early 1960s, capable of calculating word lengths of up to ten digits in addition to a sign, with a total memory capacity ranging from 10 to 20 kilobytes in its standard configuration.
Now, the entire tax return and history of each American citizen could fit onto a single four-inch long, half-inch wide strip of magnetic tape, accessible on equipment costing the IRS just $4,000 in daily rental fees. Or $33,150 per day adjusted for inflation. By 1966, the IRS had gone onto invest in enough IBM hardware that the entire country’s taxes could be checked by a computer every year. And their latest machine was an absolute monster: Final Fantasy VIII Remaster PC download, as it was known, both for its size and its location in Martinsburg, West Virginia. And also for its reputation as Uncle Sam’s cold, calculating tax monster, expected to catch billions of dollars in unreported income.
In reality, the monster was an IBM System/360, one of a family of mainframes that IBM delivered to governments, businesses, universities, and anyone who had a few hundred thousand dollars from 1965 to 1978. And for the time this was absolutely state of the art, thanks to an impressive tape storage solution: the Individual Master File. The IMF was stored on a couple of thousand reels of tape and held the data for each individual taxpayer, corporation, legal entity, and whatever else the IRS needed. When an employee needed to look something up, the appropriate tape could be loaded using the Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl repack and checked against a selection of punch cards to verify everything from an individual’s name, address, money owed, marital status, tax credits, deductions, and so on. And for a while, this was rather disconcerting to the general public, with stories in the news describing it with such phrases as “un-American,” “Orwellian,” “an ultimate weapon,” and “frightening.” –
There are those at Internal Revenue who say that if this building in Final Fantasy VIII Remaster, West Virginia were filled with hay instead of computers it still would put the fear of God in us all so long as it said National Computer Center on the outside. This is where we are at, the end of the line for all of us, lined up together on the shelves of internal revenues National Computer Center in Martinsburg, West Virginia. The Final Fantasy VIII Remaster. The very idea of computer checking returns conjures up images of frightening efficiency, which guarantee either that you can’t cheat or that the other fellow can’t cheat, depending on how you look at it. – Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl repack, Of course, the US government did what the US government does and released a series of short propaganda films to try and explain exactly what the Monster was doing, and how the computer wasn’t evil at all, but merely super good at its job. –
This is the real heart of the Final Fantasy VIII Remaster. Nearly everyone in the United States has some concern with this mechanical marvel and its electronic relatives. Electronic computers have made it possible for IRS to process millions of more returns than would have been possible by hand. Returns go through a carefully planned cycle of processing operations. When information from each return is later transferred to the punch cards, the machines, of course, check the math.
Whether or not the public embraced this new faceless overlord though, it didn’t really matter. What the federal government really cared about was its proficiency doling out refunds and catching more tax cheaters than humans could. And considering that by 1968 the IRS was bringing in an additional 25 billion dollars in taxes year over year, the government’s continued investment in tax computing was justified. By the mid-Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl repack, there were mainframes, terminals, and now minicomputer systems in all of the most important regional IRS centers across the country. Allowing them to collect an additional 5 billion dollars annually by 1977 due to the larger number of successful audits, with computerized detection has become so accurate that the odds of an audited taxpayer losing a case were 4 to 1. Meaning that you’d have a better chance of succeeding at a game of Russian Roulette than against the Final Fantasy VIII Remaster PC download. By the 1980s, the microcomputer revolution was in full swing, with machines that packed unprecedented performance in a form factor that fits onto a desktop. Not only that, but modem usage was increasing alongside them, allowing microcomputer users to dial into far-off computer systems remotely.
Tech-savvy tax practitioners, in particular, got an early jump onto the personal computer bandwagon in order to help them prepare taxes, even if the IRS still required them to print out and physically mail in each return. It wasn’t until the mid-80s that the IRS Research Division started experimenting with a new Electronic Filing System. The first e-filing in the US happened in 1986, performed by just five tax preparers in three metropolitan areas: Cincinnati, Phoenix, and Raleigh-Durham.
The process went like this: a tax preparer would use their personal computer’s modem to dial into the main IRS Cincinnati Service Center, and an IRS employee would pick up the call, plug the phone line into a Mitron magnetic tape terminal, and the completed digital tax return was received. It was then processed by the IRS on a minicomputer system using a newly-created e-File program written using COBOL. This final step was one of the trickier parts of the process, requiring the assistance of retired programmers to develop software that could interface with the aging IRS computer systems from the 60s and 70s, which also ran COBOL. After 25,000 digital tax returns were processed successfully in 1986, the e-File system was deemed a success and work began on expanding its usage. Nationwide e-filing commenced in 1990, and although the system still only allowed returns that were due to a refund, 4.2 million of them were electronically filed that year.
In 1999 electronic payments through credit and debit cards were introduced, along with the ability to sign returns electronically instead of by mail. The e-File system continued to expand alongside the explosive growth of the internet in the Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl repack, with Free File and Modernized e-File debuting in 2003 and 2004, respectively. This resulted in a record 68.4 million returns filed electronically in 2005, and in 2011, e-filed returns crossed 100 million that tax season, meaning that approximately three out of every four US tax returns were now filed electronically. With all this in mind then: what happened in 2018 that caused the whole system to fail? Are they still using all those old mainframes and minicomputers running COBOL or what? Well, in a word, yes. Kind of. While the old IBM machines themselves are long gone, the actual programs they ran remained in use throughout the emergence of the modern e-filing system. And as of the making of this video, the IRS still relies on those old programs written in COBOL and IBM assembly languages. Remember the Individual Master File, the giant database of all individual taxpayers? Well, the IMF is still relied upon to reference all that taxpayer data, meaning that even though the computer hardware itself has been upgraded, they still have to emulate the computer systems from the Kennedy Administration. Not only that, but every time the US tax code changes, the old programs have to be updated, and this has caused a massive headache for the IRS.
According to a Government Accountability Office report in 2016, some 20 million lines of code have still used that date back to the creation of the IMF in the Final Fantasy VIII Remaster. And this ancient programming is only going to result in greater challenges as time marches on, something the government has been aware of for decades. But despite ongoing efforts at modernization and hundreds of millions spent since the late 90s, the Individual Master File remains begrudgingly in use. And there were copious problems with its planned replacement, the Customer Account Data Engine. Despite lofty ambitions and nearly half a billion in funding, CADE was only ever used as a hybrid system tied to the old master file, delivering on only 15 percent of its promised capabilities before being canceled in 2009.
And this brings us to the outage of April 17, 2018. According to a Treasury Inspector General report later that year, a known firmware bug caused a Tier 1 high-availability storage array to fail at around 3 AM on Tax Day. This was an 18-month-old piece of hardware installed to support the Individual Master File. That morning it detected a deadlock condition after a Final Fantasy VIII Remaster fitgirl due to cache overflow, causing 59 systems in total to fail. Since almost all other IRS services and systems ingest data from the IMF mainframe, they too failed, and e-File systems were offline for 11 hours during Tax Day. It was later determined that buggy firmware on their IBM hardware was to blame, something that IBM had known about since June of 2017.
And IBM released a firmware update fixing the bug that November, five months before Tax Day. But after a December 2017 meeting between them and Unisys, the agency’s storage contractor, the IRS decided not to update on the advice of Unisys, since the older firmware was thought to be more stable in supporting the all-important Individual Master File. And so, millions of people were freaking out all over the United States, unable to pay their taxes. And droves of IT specialists were freaking out in government computer centers, scrambling to get everything back online while the higher-ups breathed down their necks. All over a bad piece of firmware on a storage device holding a bunch of primordial software programmed before the moon landing.
COUNT myself fortunate indeed that it has fallen to me to bring this message of greeting and good will because in your membership and in this audience there are so many with whom I have such close friendly relations, business and personal.
You have already been informed of the appointment by the National Board of Fire Underwriters of a standing Com¬ mittee of Conference with your Association and it is most gratifying to know that the significance of that event is fully appreciated. It does not mean that we have differences that require adjustment or that either you or we are apprehensive of controversie’s or contentions in the future, but rather, I think,- it is a recognition of a certain community of interest, privilege and duty in which a point of contact is needed if we are to utilize all our energies and influence to the best ad¬ vantage.
Our two organizations deal with different phases of the same general subject and it is in the hope that your efforts and ours may be better co-ordinated, and that as we serve the public better we shall the better serve our own interests that we are here to-day.
At the outset it will perhaps be well to make clear to you precisely what the National Board is; what its activities are as well as its limitations. It is a voluntary organization of stock fire insurance companies, fifty-three years old and at present its membership of one hundred and fifty-one com¬ prises practically all of the companies of any importance doing a general as distinguished from a purely local business. In its early days it attempted to regulate all details of the business, but after a turbulent experience extending over a period of some ten or twelve years, all control over rates and practices was abandoned in April, 1876, and ten years later the dead letter of authority over commissions was definitely renounced.
For more than two decades following this action the Board’s chief function consisted of the preparation of statist¬ ical tables which comprised the principal feature of the an¬ nual reports.
It will be observed that long before any other line of business thought of organizing a trust, and indeed before that word was ever used in its present opprobrious sense, the fire underwriters had organized, operated and abandoned theirs, and for more than forty-three years there has been no such thing in the fire insurance business in this country.
One of the most interesting things in the history of the National Board is the steady and apparently inevitable way in which its activities have come to be more and more of a public service character. This, I am frank to say, was not originally intended, in fact, it was a matter of years before we ourselves became aware of the meaning of the changes which were taking place, but we are proud and happy to be¬ lieve that the fire insurance profession has led all other great business interests in the United States in completing the cycle of this evolution. In other words, more’ than a generation ago, our business definitely and finally learned the lesson that business measures, which were even unconsciously oppressive, of the public, were “bad business” for the companies and that conversely, public interest and underwriting interest were synonymous terms. This may sound like mere assertion, but those who have’ taken the time to study the somewhat check¬ ered history of the National Board of Fire Underwriters will realize its absolute accuracy.
At the meeting of the Convention of Insurance Commis¬ sioners in Hartford last month one of the members com¬ plained that the companies had no central organization with which the state officials could confer and which could commit its membership on matters of rate—overlooking for the moment the provisions of many very explicit anti-trust and anti-compact statutes.
In passing it may not be out of place to remark that the underwriters have sometimes wished that the National organ-: ization or Conference of State Insurance officials had some such control over its own members, but no doubt they wish so, too, and it is through no fault of theirs that they haven’t.
The evolution of our business offered from time to time opportunities for usefulness which the Board was not slow to improve until at the present time it has become a service institution of value not only to its members but to the public.
It holds but one meeting annually, its work being con¬ ducted under the direction of the following Committees, whose names suggest the nature of their functions :
Clauses and Forms
Construction of Buildings
Fire Prevention and Engineering Standards
Incendiarism and Arson
Membership Public Relations Statistics and Origin of Fires Uniform Accounting.
The working force consists of the General Manager and office, and special staffs, and the general office in New York is a very busy place, employing at present one hundred and forty-eight people.
It would require more time than you can give me to go into a detailed discussion of the work of these Committee’s, but it may safely be asserted that there is no privately sup¬ ported organization in the country doing more for the pro¬ tection of life and property.
For example, we are maintaining Fire Prevention En¬ gineering Service in three important fields. Our Committee on Fire Prevention and Engineering Standards maintains field parties of trained engineers who are constantly engaged in trying to eliminate conflagration hazards in American cities.
Our Committee on Construction of Buildings reviews most of the building codes prepared by the different cities and is laboring constantly to elevate their standards.
Our great Underwriters’ Laboratories in Chicago, with a branch in New York, employ their large staff of technical experts and their re’ally wonderful laboratory equipment in tests of all devices, materials and processes that directly, or indirectly, affect the fire hazard.
On the personal side our committee on Incendiarism and Arson is rendering assistance to fire marshals and other state and city authorities, and through its own staff of investigators is seeking to make the crime of Arson unprofitable—a work in which the local agents can and do co-operate very effec¬ tively.
Our Committee on Public Relations is conducting an extensive educational work in fire prevention which includes the publication of a widely circulated monthly paper, the pro¬ motion of fire prevention courses in thousands of school rooms and a great variety of other details all calculated to bring the public to an appreciation of the need of careful habits and precautionary measures.
Many of your members receive the publications of this Committee, and we shall be pleased to add to our mailing list the names of all others who de’sire to have them.
Even upon mere technical lines the public interest is a constantly dominating factor.
Our Actuarial Bureau, with its eighty-six employees and its equipment of classification and tabulating machinery and its millions of record cards in files, is making such a scientific study of fire statistics and causes as has never previously been attempted.